Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Reflective paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Reflective paper - Essay Example Algebra is one of the most difficult concepts and students easily repel this when they have to deal with problems that involve algebraic expressions. This part of mathematics involves a great deal of solving for the unknown and contains unto itself different aspects and areas of study expressed in variables that require more advance skills than regular problem solving. Algebra used to be an advanced subject that was usually taught in higher grades but this had been revised and more recently students as early as pre-K-2 are already introduced to this area of mathematics which further proves the emphasis duly given to it (Biilstein, Libeskind and Lott, 2010). Keeping in mind that some students may be at different levels in terms of comprehending algebraic equations, it would be indispensable to start the lesson by giving an overview on this concept and expounding from an introduction to the definition of variable and how this is important in algebra. There must be some form of process where the students will be assimilated to a reinforced attitude that allows for algebraic thinking. Teaching algebra may be challenging especially when there will definitely be students who simply rebuff the idea of having to deal with the subject. There are ways to avoid this attitude but it requires patience and an open mind. To this end it may also be helpful to start with algebraic expressions in more tangible terms by incorporating picture examples and other more common things and then slowly building up to an advance level when the students are deemed to be ready and able to solve by themselves more complicated problems. This course had been very helpful in integrating the theoretical element of teaching mathematic and perceiving them in the actual room setting. There had been many fundamental concepts that are often overlooked that we as teachers must be mindful of when teaching the subject and in the profession in general. The book offers a comprehensive take on mathematics with a holistic presentation of concepts and lessons that are presented not only in a conventional manner but aims to be more interactive and encompassing by including historical sidebars, colorful presentations and multilevel approach which is not only useful for the teacher but also translates to effective classroom management. Being a professional mathematics teacher would pose some difficulties in ascertaining the level of the students and enabling them to appreciate mathematics especially when most of them already have preconceived notions that math is a difficult subject. Most students easily shy away when faced with demanding math problems without exerting effort to try and solve on their own. This is the main dilemma for any mathematics teacher and this consumes most of the problems that are encountered inside the classroom. The concepts that I have learned provides for a thorough appreciation of not only mathematics as a subject but the application of available theories and proven perspectives that all point towards a congruent teaching strategy for me as a teacher and an innovative appreciation that may hopefully be imbued by the students. In most of the lessons, there were graphical equations and alternative solutions that are useful when faced with difficult math problems.

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Consumer Behavior In Malaysia Marketing Essay

Consumer Behavior In Malaysia Marketing Essay As many researchers have been asserted that good store image of retail stores able mean the success or failure of the business. This review will focus on the variables that the further study will centre on. This focus and previous research conclusions will be included in the chapters of the store image where the variables are integrated. 2.1 Consumer Behavior in Malaysia Malaysias consumer lifestyle has been evolving and changing due in part to rising affluence and education levels. High profile international retailers and the global mass media have also played a hand in shaping consumer-buying behavior. Malaysians are becoming more westernized, sophisticated and cosmopolitan. Malaysians spend a high percentage of their household income on food, groceries and personal care items, ranking third out of the ten major economies in the Asia-Pacific region (excluded Japan). According to ACNielsen, Malaysians on average spent MYR505 per month on food and groceries, with just under half of that on fresh food like meat, fruits and vegetables. Since the emergence of the foreign-owned hypermarkets, Malaysians who live in urban areas have become accustomed to shopping for groceries at hypermarkets and supermarkets. Meanwhile rural people continue to purchase from traditional grocers, convenience stores and mini-marts. High and middle-income households spend most of their money at hypermarkets, followed by supermarkets and traditional grocery stores. The high-income group has household income of more than MYR3500 per month. 2.2 Retail Store Growth and Evolution Large-size store becomes a trend in the global. Hypermarkets are one of the manifestations of organized retailing. Srivastava (2008) observes that organized retailing, globally, has played a major role in nations GDP and employment. According to Srivastava, the ratio (composition) of organized versus traditional retailing is increasing in countries such as the US (85:15), Taiwan (81:19), Malaysia (55:45), Thailand (40:60), Indonesia (30:70), China (20:80), and India (3:97). The data in parenthesis describes the organized versus traditional ratio of retailing for each country. Offering large premises with both food and non-food items, everyday low prices (EDLP), and large car parks; the hypermarket format has been in existence for more than 35 years since the inauguration of Carrefour (the first French hypermarket) on 15 June 1963 (Roberts, 2005). The phenomenal success of hypermarkets in France affected other formats so adversely that certain legal restrictions were imposed on them. To counter the restrictions, the internationalization of French hypermarkets began in the 1970s, when Carrefour went global to countries such as Spain, Brazil and Argentina (Roberts, 2005). Carrefour along with other leading French chains such as Euromarche, Auchan and Leclerc subsequently marked their presence in the US market too between 1985 and 1993 (Roberts, 2005). The evolution of hypermarkets was quite revolutionary and their growth rate far surpassed the traditional formats in different parts of the world. In Spain, the number of traditional outlets dedicated to the retail food business fell by almost 50% between 1980 and 1995, where hypermarkets and supermarkets multiplied 6 and 11 respectively during that period (Flavian and Polo, 1998). In a similar manner, Taiwans traditional farmers markets disappeared at rates between 3-5% per year with the opening of at least 100 new supermarkets and 50 new hypermarkets all over Taiwan between 1988 and 1996 (Chang and Tu, 2005). Supermarkets and hypermarkets almost doubled to 941 from 544 in the Czech Republic too, in a time span of seven years, acquiring 55% of total retail sales (Healey Baker, 2002). 2.3 Store Formats 2.3.1 Hypermarket Hypermarket has clearly emerged as one of the most important retailing entity in most countries, offsetting the traditional and supermarket (Barros, 2006). Malaysian had her first hypermarkets opened for business in 1994. According to the Economic Transformation Programme announced in October 2010, Malaysia has 121 hypermarkets, included Giant, Tesco, Carrefour, Mydin. The general rule for one hypermarket is for every 250,000 people. The evolution of the various retail formats, in one way or the other, customers benefit by having greater access and choice. The concept of all the items under one roof has been submitted to different customers and have brought some changes in their preferences and behavior. With the presence of hypermarkets, customer expectations have changed and their importance to the acquisition have been affected (Oruc N, 2005); Terblanche and Boshoff, 2004; Vignali et al., 2001). Expectations and preferences, was different in different cultural environments, the study aimed to study the perceptions of consumers and their preferences on the store image of traditional wet markets and hypermarkets. 2.3.2 Traditional Wet Market A traditional wet market is an open food market, it is also called as traditional market (Wordie, 2002). The main features of the market have been traditionally associated with a place that sells live animals. The raw meat may include poultry, fish, reptiles, and so on. Depending on the region, the animals are usually caged and killed for the preparation. Fresh fruits and vegetables are also available. Wet markets usually include butchers and fish markets, which are in a separate section of the fruit and vegetable stalls. The highest hygiene standards of supermarkets have forced many traditional markets to operate in the interior. In general, the owner of a wet market, owns and maintains the building. The stalls are rented to retailers, who buy and sell their products independently. This is in contrast to a hyper store operated by a single company. In 2011, a total of 23 traditional wet markets and 3075 stalls inside the traditional wet markets in Penang Island are belong to Penang Municipal Council (Majlis Perbandaran Pulau Pinang, MPPP). 2.4 Store image Store image can be described as a concept of the way of consumers see a store in their mind, regarding touchable or untouchable attributes. It is a way of the store being defined in the consumers mind, partly is functional qualities of the store and partly is the atmosphere of psychological attributes of the store (Martineau, 1958). The store image will affect the shoppers buying behavior and this was a conceptualization with included store attributes by the researchers (James et. Al, 1976). Besides that, store image is also described as the concept of combination of consumers or shoppers perceptions of a store on different attributes (Bloemer and Ruyter, 1998). There are several researchers ever tried to identify the store attributes as these are the foundation of the overall image of the store. According to Lindquist (1974), store image have 9 elements, included vending, consumer, facilities, service, comfort, promotion, atmosphere, institutional and post transaction satisfaction. Later on, Doyle and Fenwick (1974) simplified and categorized the store image to 5 elements: price, product, variety, styling and location. While addition attributes of parking facilities and friendly personnel has been put forward by Bearden (1978). According McGoldrick (1990), the image is the indicator of the asset value of the branding, it corresponds with the long-run result of retailing activities. The understanding of the relationship between image and buying behavior of consumers are very important for better strategies in attracting consumers. 2.5 Consumers perception On Store Image 2.5.1 Variety of Goods The main attraction of the retail store is the trading of the goods. According Lindquist (1974), the main components of trading goods are quality, variety and selection of the goods. The stores which provide variety of goods will never lose its attraction. According Golledge et al. (1966), assortment or variety of the goods offers shoppers with more choices and enhances the ability of the stores to satisfy their needs. This makes them unnecessary to visit different stores to fulfill their needs. Based on this reason, a large size of stores such as supermarket or hypermarket has advantage in the retail sector, this kind of store able provide variety choice to consumers and makes them has benefit in reducing their time in visiting different stores (Huff, 1962). Thus, the stores which are able to provide variety and assortment of goods and services have their advantage to attract more consumers and to be preferred by the consumers as well. 2.5.2 Store Atmosphere Atmospheric of a retail store is a very important element. Atmospherics of retail store is the effort to design retail environments to produce specific emotional effects in the consumer that enhance his buying probability (Kotler, 1974). Ghosh (1994) found that atmospherics of store refers to the environment that is brought about by a coordinated visual display of goods and the ease of accessibility and mobility within the retail store. Moreover, Donovan and Rossiter (1982) assert that the physical surrounding will produce an emotional reaction and directly affected the consumers buying behavior. Thus, atmospheric of store becomes a strategy of the retailers, providing a favorable environment with spacious space, clean and comfortable, lighting and so on to affected shopping behavior of consumers. Thus, atmospheric of store is a key factor in stimulating consumers perception and retail store with attractive atmosphere increase preference of consumers. 2.5.3 Quality of Service Consumer patronage of retail stores often extends beyond the impact of the acquisition of goods. Bitner et al. (1994) describes the visiting of consumer to retail stores usually considers as a recreational activity whose dignity is enhanced by the level of service within the store. Thus, the quality of service has great affected to the consumers buying behavior (Shycon, 1992). As describe by Lindquist (1974), service includes giving information of goods, answering to consumer question, showing the goods location and so on. With providing this kind of service, consumers are able to find the goods and service in the retailer store in shorter time. Reynolds and Beatty (1999) asserted that service or retail store is to strengthen the relationship between retail store and consumer, it encourage them prefer to visit the store again in the future. 2.5.4 Accessibility of Retail Store Retail stores that are ease on accessible able to reduce the travel time between home and stores. Consumers time and effort in obtaining the service convenience will influence their buying behavior (Grewal et al., 2002). Eppli and Shilling (1996) described the easier the retail store be accessible, the more preferred by the consumers. The location of retail store can be determined whether the establishment of the store success or failure. Retail stores that provide car parks may have larger catchment to adjacent area to the consumers who own private vehicle, as Lindquist (1974) assert that accessibility as having a convenient location and this includes parking facilities. While stores which are equipped bus stops will increase the accessibility as well. Thus, better accessibility of retail store able to reduce the travel time and fewer barrier is likely to be preferred by consumers. 2.5.5 Price of Goods Compare to the promotion and goods variety, the influences of price to consumer shopping behavior have less important (Fox et al., 2004). On the other hand, Sieder and Costley (1994), assert a different point of view, they observed that pricing is a major determinant of store choice in the retail store shopping context. According to their study, the result reported that perception of goods pricing inter-related with their preference in choosing a store. Most of the consumer will take consideration of the pricing of the goods before going to shop at a particular retail store. Price is a determinant in store choice and to be a key factor of patronage motivations, this study was also linked the pricing policies to consumers perception and shopping behavior. 2.5.6 Quality of Goods Retail stores have an image of providing goods in better or lower quality and have influenced the decision which is made by consumer as where to go (Schiffman et al., 2007). The pricing of the goods is inter-related with design of the physical environment of the retail store, product variety, and service and so on. Alba et al. (1994) assert that a study of comparative pricing strategies found that buyers prefer to buy in the store that offers discount on a smaller number of products (for example, the frequency of price advantage) that have lower prices for overall compare to a store which is offering bigger discounts on a small number of items (eg, the magnitude of price advantage). 2.5.7 Store Displays Store displays were in purpose for promotion in older time. Nowadays, the store displays have new role for effective displays. Bell and Ternus (2002) described that store displays have been discovered new role in displaying product information, helping the shopper in making decisions, and creating attractive shopping environment.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Odysseus The Hero :: essays research papers

Odysseus the Hero   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  For a character to be an epic hero, he must possess four characteristics. These four characteristics include the following: (1) he must be high born, (2) the hero must have human weaknesses, (3) he must be brave,and 4) he must be clever. In The Odyssey, Homer’s character Odysseus was an epic hero because he possessed all four of the characteristics.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  One characteristic that Odysseus had to be an epic hero was that he was highborn. Odysseus was Prince Laertiades of Ithaca. The goddess Circe knew he was highborn and addressed Odysseus with his formal name “Prince Laertiades…'; (p. 120). When his men feared that he was dead and Odysseus returned to them unharmed, from their hearts they said, “You are back again my prince! How glad we are…';(p.120). Also, because Odysseus had not returned home to Ithaca, many men tried to wed his wife, Penelopeia, so that they could rule his kingdom.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Odysseus was also an epic hero because he had human weaknesses. One of his weaknesses was that he was arrogant. Even after he defeated Polyphemos (the Cyclops) Odysseus stayed longer just so he could taunt him. He “…wanted to shout out again…although [his] comrades…tried to coax [him] not to do it'; (p.110). Odysseus, against his crew’s wishes, shouted, “…Cyclops! if ever a man asks you who put out your ugly eye, tell him your blinder was Odysseus!'; (p.110). Another human weakness of Odysseus was that he had a bad temper. When Eurylochos refused to go back to Circe’s mansion, Odysseus “…thought for a moment that [he] would draw [his] sword and cut off his head…';(p.121). If his men did not stop him, Odysseus probably would have killed Eurylochos and therefore lost a good man because of his short temper. Lust was another weakness of his. For Seven years Odysseus and Circe were lovers. Because he sta yed with Circe, Odysseus prolonged his return home to Ithaca. Odysseus had many human weaknesses.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Another characteristic that Odysseus had to be an epic hero was that he was brave. Even though Eurylochos urged Odysseus to not go to Circe and leave the island without his crew Odysseus refused to. He responded to Eurylochos by saying “…as for me, go I must and go I will.';(p.117). Odysseus was a loyal leader, and even though he knew that he faced an impossible task, he went to Circe’s to bring his men back to safety.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

The Nogo Railroad

The NoGo Railroad I. Problems A. Macro 1. Union problems need to be addressed at corporate level. 2. Massive changes are needed in personnel policies that can only be accomplished through intensive union and executive sessions. 3. This organization may not survive the needed changes. There may not be time for organization development to be used and the revolutionary method—organization transformation—may be too radical. 4. Changes may not be allowed by management at this time. Change is inevitable and the longer that NoGo waits, the more radical those changes will be.B. Micro 1. Dave Keller is in a no-win situation. 2. The only hope Dave has of making all the needed changes would be to accomplish the needed changes over a long period of time with empowerment and support from top management. 3. In the short term, Dave can attempt to gain employee support. Because the union is so strong, it is doubtful that he can obtain much support. II. Causes 1. Union stronghold. 2. Co mpany has been reacting to changes instead of proactively forecasting changes. 3.Management is not cohesive; they do not share information, support, or resources with employers and lower-level managers. III. Systems affected 1. Structural – job descriptions and the formal structure are very rigid, largely because of years of practice. 2. Psychosocial – Dave is very unsure of the security of his position and suspects he is being set up. Other employees, including some in management, want to preserve the status quo. 3. Technical – the technology has change through the years but the organization has failed to recognize the change.As evidence is the archaic job titles (fireman) and job descriptions. 4. Managerial – virtually no support from management for Dave to make changes. Management seems to be as much of the problem as unionized employees. Everyone seems to want to protect his or her turf. 5. Goals and values – though â€Å"status quo† is actually not a value, it never-the-less is what employees in many cases value. Their goal is not to change. IV. Alternatives 1. Dave can forge on ahead and suggest changes as he sees them.If top management does not begin to press for changes, the organization will probably cease to exist. 2. Management needs to consider what they will offer to unions prior to the next contract in order to make the following changes. a. Positions need to be eliminated. b. Positions need to be combined. c. Featherbedding and nepotism need to be eliminated from all levels of the organization. 3. Some proposed â€Å"carrots†: a. Management reduces unnecessary managerial and corporate staff as well as union positions. . The Board of Directors ties future management and union pay raises together. Pay increases will also be tied to productivity and profits. 4. Management should consider confrontation with union. a. This alternative needs to be carefully considered. b. There would be the possibility of violent confrontations. c. There will be many legal ramifications and expenses incurred by both sides. d. Even if the company is successful in obtaining concessions from the union, the company may have future problems.In unpopulated areas such as Montana, Idaho, and Washington, future employees will probably have ties to former union railroad employees. V. Recommendations Dave should attempt to make the necessary changes for NoGo to become a healthy organization. Unless he is able to live with the old corporate culture, he will not be effective. When Dave is â€Å"fed up,† he will probably resign. Hopefully before that point, the company’s top management will become supportive of the needed change programs. Meanwhile, Dave needs to be realistic about his future and keep his resume up to date.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Title Critically discuss the ways UNICEF engage media techniques in their communications’ strategy.

Introduction Communication strategies are designed to help governmental and non-governmental organisations communicate effectively to meet core objectives. In the new digital age, communicating through the media has become an effective way of targeting audiences and persuading them to act by either providing support or giving money (Goodman and Hirsch, 2010: 2). The non-governmental organisation (NGO) UNICEF provides an example of how the effective use of persuasive media techniques in a communications strategy can help to generate capital and support. UNICEF uses a number of different techniques, which all help to raise awareness of the objectives that are trying to be achieved (Dijkzeul and Moke, 2005: 673). With particular focus on children, UNICEF is able to communicate with audiences to obtain humanitarian assistance. A higher degree of financial independence is acquired and subsequently used for humanitarian and development activities (Dijkzeul and Moke, 2005: 673). It is unlikely that such assistance would be obtained without the use of various media techniques. This essay will critically discuss the ways UNICEF engage media techniques in their communications’ strategy. Media Techniques and Political Communications The main objective of most media messages is to persuade or encourage the audience to believe or do something (MLP, 2014: 1). In doing so, a number of different techniques are used to grab the audience’s attention and to establish trust and credibility (Erwin, 2014: 104). One technique that is used by the media is the use of direct quotations from identified sources. This makes the reader believe the story being told and is often used as a powerful motivator to encourage the reader to act, for example, by giving money or purchasing something (MLP, 2014: 1). Where direct quotations are used, it is more likely that the message being conveyed will be successful received as the audience will believe what is being said. Such techniques are referred to as the â€Å"language of persuasion† and are essential media literacy skills (Changing Minds, 2013: 1). This was recognised by Lippmann who believed that persuasion had become a â€Å"self-conscious art and a regular organ of popular government (Denton and Kuypers, 2007: 1). Persuasion is thus a way of creating consent from individuals about a particular premise and is capable of modifying political communications in a very influential way. Unless communications are persuasive, it is doubtful that they will be effective since persuasion is the main communication tool that is required by the media. Governments use persuasion as a means of obtaining consent from the messages being conveyed, also known as political communication. Political communication is considered to have the following four elements; 1) short-term orientation; 2) based upon specific objectives; 3) primarily mediated; and 4) audience centred. Political communication is not exclusive to the political world as non-political actors also use this type of communication as a way of communicating messages to the public. This is generally done by organisations that have a political objective such as; non-governmental organisations (NGO’s). An NGO is an organisation that is separate and distinct from governments and profitable businesses. Although NGO’s can be funded by governments and businesses, they are usually set up by ordinary citizens to further an agenda (Welch, 2000: 1). Whilst the agenda’s of many NGO’s will differ, the methods of communication that are used will be similar in that they will all seek to effectively communicate their objectives to the targeted audience. The primary objective of most NGO’s is to ensure that human rights are being fully protected. Although NGO’s from different jurisdictions will not always have the same goals, they will still be structured in a similar manner. This is because NGO’s generally seek to promote human rights worldwide, which requires them to co-operate with governments and the United Nations (Wong, 2012: 37). NGO’s are also important in helping to bring public interest matters before the courts (Wadham, 2001: 1). The ma ss media is a useful tool that allows political communications of NGO’s to be effectuated, yet social, cultural and psychological problems are usually associated with media content and use (Perse, 2001: 1). It was stressed by Young that modern society engulfs its members through the media, education and participation within the marketplace (Young, 1999: 82). The media is capable of articulating beliefs by adopting various ideological approaches. It has been said by Croteau and Hoynes that the media do not promote a singular perception of ideology and instead communicate a number of different ideological perceptions (Croteau and Hoynes, 2012: 154). They noted that social ideologies are more domineering of society than mainstream ideologies because of the fact that people pay as much attention to street scenes, housing and clothing as they do to the commentary when watching international news (Thompson, 1995: 176). Arguably, it is clear from these assertions that the media is e xtremely powerful in influencing the minds of individuals, which is why it is a form of communication that is commonly used by NGO’s to further their agenda’s. The media is capable of shaping an audiences subjectivity through the representation of ideological belief’s. NGO’s thereby benefit from using media techniques to persuade their targeted audience to act in a certain manner. The media is extremely powerful in persuading the attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of society through the use of propaganda. Propaganda is a form of communication that influences an audience to act based on a particular agenda. Propaganda is used as a means of generating emotional responses to messages that are produced to influence societal attitudes towards a particular cause or position. NGO’s often use propaganda to fulfil their objectives and are thus considered effective cultural propaganda disseminators (Cull et al; 2003: 193). NGO’s have been considered politics of the poor on the basis that they represent political ideologies (Karim, 2001: 92). Political ideology is a set of ideas which represent the objectives, expectations and actions of a political party. A broad range of belief systems exist within different political parties and have generally been acquired from doctrines, ideals, myths, principles and social movements. Ideology is a system that is made u p of values and beliefs â€Å"regarding the various institutions and processes of society that is accepted as fact or truth by a group of people† (Sargent, 2008: 2). Political ideology therefore comprises the views of political parties on how the world should be. This allows political parties to allocate social values (Easton, 1971: 129) and determine what is considered an ‘ideal’ world. There are different views and opinions of ideological theory, though ideology is largely driven by competing groups in society who strive for hegemony (Hall, 1997: 13). Hegemony happens when the most dominant in society promotes, through the media and culture, a set of ideals that members of that society must conform to (Allan, 2004: 6). This is beneficial for NGO’s who use the media to establish an ideological perception of the rights in which they are trying to protect. In deciding whether certain behaviours conform to society, the set of ideals that have been created wi thin that society will need to be considered by the media when deciding what messages need to be conveyed. Many believe that this is unfair and problematic as ideology only serves the interests of one segment of society over all other segments (Curra, 2000: 6). This prejudices many parts of society as certain groups may not benefit from the established ideals that are created. As pointed out by Brown et al; ideology may only be beneficial to certain ethnic groups, genders or religions (Brown et al; 2010: 9). This does not provide an accurate reflection of the whole of society and whilst ideals are necessary in helping people to identify what is right and wrong, it seems unacceptable to segregate certain parts of society. This may, however, be necessary when protecting the rights of certain individuals. Political ideologies are subject to further critique on the basis that they do not consider the needs of modern society (Stankiewicz, 2012: 408), yet as pointed out by Selinger; †Å"There is no politics without ideology† (Selinger, 1975: 99). In effect, this appears to demonstrate that all political communications will have some element of ideology as moral judgements will be contained within them. Effectively, the objectives of NGO’s will be based upon ideological beliefs and will mostly have a political objective. An example of this can be seen in relation to the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), which is an NGO that provides humanitarian and development assistance to mothers and children in underdeveloped countries. The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) created UNICEF on the 11th December 1946 to provide food and healthcare to children that had been affected by World War II. Although UNICEF is not operated by the government, it like many other NGO’s largely relies upon governmental support and political communications. NGO’s have, for some time, relied upon the mass media to expose violations of human-rights and encourage governments to put pressure on those found to be abusing them (Thrall et al; 2014: 3). This is intended to discourage human rights abuses from taking place and to help the perpetrators be put to justice. The effectiveness of this is arguable, though it seems as though greater support is being acquired by the likes of UNICEF as a result of this. Since the advancement of modern technology UNICEF is now able to establish new communication strategies for channeling information politics via the internet (Chadwick and Phillip, 2008: 3). It is arguable whether the strategies that are being undertaken by UNICEF are effective in persuading audiences to support their cause, though it seems likely given UNICEF’s use of the med ia. The media is largely proficient in influencing society of certain ideological perceptions through television programmes, newspapers, magazines, films and radio programmes (Long and Wall, 2009; 285). These forms of communication are used in a way that manipulates societal values and beliefs and will continue to influence the ways in which we think about things whether consciously or subconsciously (Kenix, 2010: 1). Not only does the media send out ideological messages to the public but media systems have also been intertwined into society’s ideological framework. This highlights the power of the media in shaping individuals values and beliefs within society. UNICEF’s campaigns are mainly in the form of mass media, radio programmes, posters, street plays and localised outreach (UNICEF, 2014: 1). Because of this, a wider range of support will be acquired. UNICEF is reaching out to a broader audience, which will generate a huge amount of support and funding that would not otherwise be available. Arguably, it is imperative that the media techniques being used in UNICEF’s communications strategy are effective in helping to shape ideological views on the rights of children. UNICEF is an advocate of children’s rights and so it is necessary for UNICEF to communicate how these rights are being violated and what protections need to be in place. This will help UNICEF to gain support and the message UNICEF is trying to put across will be better received by the public. Communications Strategy The communications strategy of UNICEF is vital in strengthening human development and avoiding missed opportunities. An ineffective communications strategy will generally yield poor results and stifle the development of UNICEF (UNDP, 2014: 1). UNICEF’s targeted audience will not receive the message that is being portrayed. This will prevent UNICEF from developing, which will impact its success.. Effective communications are important skills NGO’s need to survive and be successful (KDID, 2013: 28). To make an impact, UNICEF will thus be required to use effective means of communication to ensure that their views and opinions are heard. In doing so, they will most likely face a number of difficult challenges because of the fact that it has become increasingly difficult to deliver to society complex humanitarian crises. It is also difficult to explain to society who is involved in certain humanitarian crisis’ because of how widespread they generally are (ICRC, 2005: 673). A huge amount of NGO’s currently strive for media attention, thereby highlighting the need to have effective communication strategies in place (Thrall et al; 2014: 19). UNICEF must adopt a coherent and credible approach when conveying public communication so that its message can be heard. It has been said that in order to understand political communication, one must understand how consent is created (Denton and Kuypers, 2007: 1). UNICEF will thus be required to communicate messages in a way that allows consent to be obtained, which will need to be included within the communications strategy of UNICEF. A good communications strategy will help to certify good organisational branding and positioning, which will help to attract staff, donors and volunteers (KDID, 2013: 28). Successful branding through media communications will put an NGO in a desirable position within the community, which will help to garner support and belief from the public. This will require NGO’s to be completely transparent so that the messages in which they are trying to put across can be clearly communicated (Thrall et al; 2014: 19). Unless UNICEF adopts a transparent and clear approach, it will be difficult to gain support and belief from the public (Lilleker, 2006: 4). Public support is, however, crucial to the implementation of change (Rabinowitz, 2013: 3). Without public support, it is doubtful that UNICEF would be as successful as they are. It is debatable what the best techniques for gaining public support are, though an effective communications strategy that takes into account UNICEF’s agenda and identifies points that will require persuasive communication will most likely prove successful. It is important that the communications strategy identifies the appro aches and tools that are needed to make a particular event more effective. In developing a communications strategy, it first needs to be established what UNICEF is trying to achieve. Subsequently, it will then need to be considered what communications objectives will most likely support the objectives of the project (McManus, 1994: 58). The communications objectives of UNICEF will be those that are capable of being reached through various means of communications. Such objectives will also need a target audience. This will require UNICEF to consider who they are trying to reach. In reaching out to the target audience, UNICEF will need to develop appropriate messages which highlight the relevant issues; the actions that needs to be taken by the target audience; and the benefits of such action (KDID, 2013: 28). Once this has been done, UNICEF will then have to consider how these messages will be delivered. Different methods of communication will be considered depending upon the type of event that is being promoted such as; media conferences, social media, interviews, marketing, advertisements and news stories. Given that UNICEF targets underdeveloped countries, it is likely that difficulties will be faced when considering the political objectives of various countries. Political communications are likely to vary from one country to another, which will create a number of problems. An effective communications strategy will seek to address these difficulties, though it will remain arguable whether they will prove sufficient in achieving certain objectives (Thrall et al; 2014: 19). In Africa, for example, the media seems to control those in power by reporting to citizens. Whilst this demands a degree of institutional independence from the political system, it has been said that there is actually a â€Å"clear interdependence between the media and political systems† (Windeck, 2014: 17). Information from political systems is usually exchanged for coverage in the media system and vice versa. The media consequently rely heavily on the supply of information from politics, whilst political bod ies rely on the media to spread their messages and objectives (Windeck, 2014: 17). Political communication is an important tool in the political process, and will continue to influence politics. In effect, the political communications of certain countries will be driven by cultural and political factors, which may be difficult to overcome. Female genital mutilation is one area that UNICEF continues to campaign against, but is faced with many political objections from countries where FGM is prevalent; Asia, the Middle East and some parts of Africa (Gaber, 2007: 219). UNICEF are resultantly required to implement a strategy that is capable of strengthening the political commitment of governments. UNICEF’s Communications Strategy There are three components of communication that are used by UNICEF to garner support and funding. These are; advocacy, social mobilisation and behaviour change communication (UNICEF, 2008: 7). Advocacy is used to inform and motivate leadership so that a supportive environment can be created. This will allow the objectives and development goals of the program to be achieved. Social mobilisation seeks to engage support and participation from various institutions, social and religious groups, and community networks. It is intended that the development objectives of UNICEF will be maintained through the use of social mobilisation and that greater demand will be generated. Behaviour change communication involves face to face discussions with a number of individuals and groups to motivate, inform, plan and problem-solve. It is anticipated that by using this technique, the objectives of UNICEF can be met (UNICEF, 2008: 7). Various conceptual models are used by UNICEF to implement communica tion including ACADA, P-Process and COMBI. The ACADA (Assessment, Communication Analysis, Design, Action) model is frequently used by UNICEF to use systematically-gathered data to link communications strategies to development problems. The P-Process model, developed by The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health/Center for Communication Programs (CCP), is used for the strategic planning of evidence based communication programmes and contains the following five steps; 1) analysis, 2) strategic design, 3) development and testing, 4) implementation and monitoring, and 5) evaluation and re-planning (UNICEF, 2008: 7). The COMBI model uses a ten step process for communication planning, which are; 1) overall goal, 2) behavioural results/objectives, 3) situational market analysis, 4) results strategy, 5) plan of action, 6) management structure, 7) monitoring, 8) impact assessment, 9) scheduling, and 10) budget (UNICEF, 2008: 7). All three of these models seek to establish an effective communications strategy by analysing the different approaches that can be taken and considering the necessary steps needed. Analysis is integral to an effective communications strategy as it will enable any underlying issues to be identified and thereby dealt with accordingly. UNICEF undertakes a comprehensive analysis comprising of; the situation, the programme, the participants, the behaviours, and the communication channels (UNICEF, 2008: 7). The situation section describes the issues that are being addressed by UNICEF such as; child poverty, disease, malnutrition and trafficking. This is based upon data that has be en collected from local knowledge, programme documents and research. The data highlights the underlying social and cultural issues by demonstrating what changes need to be made to social structures and practices. The programme section is designed to establish where the objectives of UNICEF can be achieved by communication. The participant section establishes what people are required to achieve UNICEF’s objectives. The behaviour section focuses on setting behavioural objectives and analysing the behaviours or practices that have been selected for change. Finally, the communication channels section considers the available communication channels that are applicable in achieving the objectives. Once the analysis has been completed, UNICEF will have identified the participants, behaviours and channels of communications that are needed to encourage audience participation and accomplish its goals (UNICEF, 2008: 7). In order to ensure that the objectives of UNICEF are being met by changing the attitude and behaviour of individuals, knowledge alone will not be sufficient. Instead, a supportive environment will also need to be established (UNICEF, 2008: 37). Therefore, whilst the communications strategy of UNICEF will need to instil knowledge into the community so that support can be acquired, a supportive environment will also need to be created. This will involve creating policies that improve access to services and by using leaders that help to promote social and behaviour change amongst various members of society. Resources will also need to be allocated for the programme activities that are to be carried out and positive change will be effectuated by using a combination of communication techniques. UNICEF believes that communication goes way beyond providing information to the targeted audience and instead argue that communication is vital for development (Dijkzeul and Moke, 2005: 673). UNICE F has therefore set up a development programme, also known as C4D, which aims to engage communities through understanding people’s beliefs, values and social and cultural norms (Lenni and Tacchi, 2013: 16). This is achieved from listening to adults and children, identifying issues and working out solutions. This is considered a two way process that allows individuals to share knowledge and ideas through the use of various communication techniques that empower communities to take action in improving the lives of children (Lenni and Tacchi, 2013: 16). Advocacy is one technique UNICEF engages in its communications strategy, which is the â€Å"act of supporting a cause to produce a desired change† (Save the Children, 2014: 1). Advocacy is capable of influencing governments to effect change by communicating with the media, elected officials and influential leaders. Advocacy is able to encourage leaders to implement various changes such as; legal reform, policy decisions, addressing social and political barriers, and altering funding priorities. Advocacy efforts being used by UNICEF occur at global, national and sub-level and seek to influence the decisions of policy makers as well as political and social leaders. This is done through the creation of an enabling policy and legislative environment and by allocating resources appropriately to create and sustain social transformation (UNICEF, 2011: 1). For example, in 2010 when polio resurfaced in the Democratic Republic of Congo, there existed a lack of awareness of the disease and how it could be prevented. Influential leaders, such as Marco Kiabuta, did not believe that the vaccination of polio was necessary. After a number of debates with community mobilisers and leaders Kiabuta came to realise just how vital a vaccination was. This example demonstrates how effective communication techniques ca n make a huge difference in implementing change and possibly saving lives (UNICEF, 2011: 1). Advocacy is used by UNICEF to target political, business and social leaders at national and local levels. It is not used simply to create mass awareness but is also used as a means of generating change and leading to a specific action that is to be taken (UNICEF, 2010: 20). UNICEF uses advocacy to inform and motivate appropriate leaders to create a supportive environment by changing polices, speaking out on critical issues, allocating resources and initiating public discussion. Communication is a powerful tool, which is why it is important for various media techniques to be adopted by NGO’s such as UNICEF. Social mobilisation is another method of communication that is used by UNICEF to enlist participants, community networks, and religious groups to strengthen participation in various activities. This helps to engage and motivate partners and allies to raise awareness of UNICEFâ€℠¢s development objectives through face-to-face dialogue. Partners and allies subsequently work together to target audiences and convey certain messages. Social mobilisation is used as a way to facilitate change through a range of players that are engaged in interrelated and complementary efforts (UNICEF, 2012: 1). An example of this can be seen in relation to the training community health workers in Madagascar received from UNICEF. The health workers were trained to provide outreach to families on various issues including, hand washing, vaccinating children, and not defecating in the open (UNICEF, 2012: 1). This is clearly an effective communication technique that is used by UNICEF as it allows certain individuals to be trained up so that they can pass their knowledge onto others. This has a domino like effect and will enable the views of UNICEF to be conveyed to a wider audience than that which would have been possible through advertisements alone. Social mobilisation is therefore an effective way of spreading messages to targeted audiences and helping to achieve the objectives of UNICEF, which is to provide assistance to mothers and children in underdeveloped countries. Behaviour change communication is another method that is used to address knowledge, attitudes and practices that are linked to programme goals. This is done by providing participants with â€Å"relevant information and motivation through well-defined strategies, using an audience-appropriate mix of interpersonal, group and mass media channels and participatory methods† (UNICEF/INDA, 2012, 1). Behaviour change communication strategies focus on the individual to effect change. In order for behavioural changes to happen on a larger scale, social change communication needs to be employed. This technique helps to define and address social influences in life and is currently being employed by UNICEF through the Social Ecological Model framework† (UNICEF/INDA, 2012, 1). The media techni ques that are currently being used by UNICEF do appear effective in helping to persuade audiences to provide support. The more UNICEF does to spread its message, the more successful UNICEF will be in achieving its aims. The Meena Communication Initiative in South Asia gives an example of how mass media and interpersonal communication is used to enhance the self-esteem and self-worth of children by enabling them to become familiar with life skills that are essential empowerment tools. The programme is primarily school based and is centred around a nine-year old girl called Meena who seeks to fight against the stigma that surrounds HIV/AIDS (UNICEF/INDA, 2012, 1). A radio station called ‘Meena Radio’ was launched in 2010 to communicate with children, their parents, educators and community leaders. This provides an effective means of communication and provides a platform for UNICEF’s political beliefs to be heard. It is intended that the radio station’s audience will be persuaded to act so that the voices of children and communities can be heard through the power of communication. This helps to promote child survival, development, protection and participation (UNICEF, 2014: 1 ). It is clear that UNICEF uses a number of different media techniques in its communications strategy to achieve its objectives. Without the use of such techniques, the voices of children and communities would not be heard and UNICEF’s message would not be delivered to its intended audience. It has been said that UNICEF â€Å"raises considerable funds and carries out strong communication on its own through its national committees, press centre and media team† (Dijkzeul and Moke, 2005: 683). This signifies the importance of having an effective communications strategy is in place as it can generate a significant amount of funding that would not otherwise be available. UNICEF also uses high profile figures to be its ambassadors who have been considered a highly effective in persuading society (Stromback, 2011: 42). Conclusion Overall, an effective communication strategy in an important tool for helping governmental and non-governmental organisations communicate effectively to meet core objectives. Given that UNICEF relies on voluntary donations from members of the public, government departments, charitable trusts and event organisers, it is important that they are capable of successfully communicating their objectives. In doing so, they will be required to persuade or encourage their audiences to provide support or funding so that UNICEF’s end goals can be achieved. Given that UNICEF uses a number of different media techniques in its communications strategy, the approach that is currently being undertaken does appear workable. The media is a powerful tool in the art of persuasion, which is what UNICEF needs in order to survive. The use of media techniques will help to raise awareness of UNICEF’s objectives and obtain humanitarian assistance. It is unlikely that such assistance would be obtai ned without the use of various media techniques, which is why UNICEF’s communications strategy does appear largely effective. References Allan, S. (2004), News Culture. Bukingham: Open University Press. Changing Minds. (2013). Persuasive Language, [Online], Available: http://changingminds.org/techniques/language/persuasive/persuasive.htm [07 July 2014]. Chadwick, A. and Phillip, H. (2008). 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Tuesday, October 22, 2019

States Where Recreational Marijuana Use Is Legal

States Where Recreational Marijuana Use Is Legal Eleven states have legalized  recreational marijuana use  in the United States. They are Alaska, California, Colorado, Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nevada, Oregon, Vermont, and Washington.  Washington, D.C., also allows the recreational use of marijuana.   They are among 30 states that allow the use of marijuana in some form; most others allow for use of the substance for medicinal purposes. The eleven states where recreational use is legal have the most expansive laws on the books.   Here are the states in which marijuana use is legal. They do not include states that have  decriminalized the possession of small amounts of marijuana  or states that allow the use of marijuana for medical purposes. It is also important to note that growing and selling marijuana is illegal under federal law, though that rule is not enforced by the U.S. attorney general. 1. Alaska Alaska became the third state to allow recreational marijuana use in February 2015. The legalization of marijuana in Alaska came by a ballot referendum in November 2014, when 53 percent of voters supported the move to allow use of the substance in private places. Smoking pot in public, however, is punishable by a modest fine of $100. Private use of marijuana in Alaska was first declared a right in 1975 when the state Supreme Court ruled that possessing small amounts of the substance was protected under the state constitutions guarantee of the right to privacy. Under Alaska state law,  adults 21 and older can carry up to an ounce of marijuana and possess six plants. 2. California California state lawmakers legalized the recreational use of marijuana with the passage of  Proposition 64 in November 2016, making it the largest state to legalize pot. The measure had the support of 57 percent of the legislature. Sale of marijuana became legal in 2018. Cannabis is now legal in the most populous state in the country, dramatically increasing the total potential size of the industry while establishing legal adult use markets across the entire US Pacific Coast given the legalized states of Washington and Oregon, stated New Frontier Data, which tracks the cannabis industry. 3. Colorado The ballot initiative in Colorado was called Amendment 64. The proposal passed in 2012 with support from 55.3 percent of voters in that state on Nov. 6, 2012. Colorado and Washington were  the first states to legalize recreational use of the substance. The amendment to the state constitution allows any resident over the age of 21 to possess up to an ounce, or 28.5 grams, of marijuana. Residents can also grow a small number of marijuana plants under the amendment. It remains illegal to smoke marijuana in public. Also, individuals are not able to sell the substance in Colorado. Marijuana is legal for sale only by state-licensed stores similar to those in many states that sell liquor. Colorado Gov. John Hickenlooper, a Democrat, officially proclaimed marijuana legal in his state on Dec. 10, 2012. If the voters go out and pass something and they put it in the state constitution, by a significant margin, far be it from myself or any governor to overrule. I mean, this is why it’s a democracy, right? said Hickenlooper, who opposed the measure. 4. Illinois The states General Assembly passed the Illinois Cannabis Regulation and Tax Act on May 31, 2019, and it was signed by Gov. J.B. Pritzker on June 25. The law goes into effect on Jan. 1, 2020. It allows Illinois residents at least 21 years old to possess up to 30 grams of marijuana. The limit is 15 grams for non-residents. 5. Maine Voters approved the Marijuana Legalization Act in a 2016 referendum. Individuals can possess up to 2.5 ounces (71 grams)  of cannabis, up to three mature plants, 12 immature plants and an unlimited number of seedlings. The state did not, however, begin issuing commercial licenses to sell the drug immediately because state lawmakers could not agree on how to regulate the industry. 6. Massachusetts Voters legalized recreational marijuana in November 2016. Individuals can possess up to one ounce of cannabis and grow up to six plants at their homes. Homes with more than one adult can grow up to 12 plants. Pot must be locked up and not visible in cars, and smoking while driving or in public is illegal. The states Cannabis Advisory Board continues to work on regulations but is reportedly planning to allow use of the substance in retail spaces, unlike most other states.   7. Michigan Voters legalized the recreational use of marijuana in November 2018. The Michigan Regulation and Taxation of Marijuana Act allows individuals to possess up to 2.5 ounces of marijuana outside their home and 10 ounces inside their home. Up to 12 plants per household  are allowed. Licensed retail businesses can grow up to 150 plants for sale. 8. Nevada Voters passed Question 2 in the 2016 election, making recreational marijuana legal as of 2017. Adults ages 21 and older can possess up to one ounce of cannabis and up to an eighth ounce of concentrate. Public consumption is punishable by a $600 fine. The measure had support from 55 percent of voters. 9. Oregon Oregon became the fourth state to allow the recreational use of marijuana in July 2015. The legalization of marijuana in Oregon came by ballot initiative in November 2014, when 56 percent of voters supported the move.  Oregonians are allowed  to possess up to an ounce of marijuana in public and 8 ounces in their homes. They are also allowed to grow as many as four plants in their homes. 10. Vermont The state legislature passed HB511 in January 2018, which allows an individual to possess one ounce of cannabis and two plants. No commercial sales are allowed. The law took effect on July 1, 2018. 11. Washington The ballot measure approved in Washington was called Initiative 502. It was very similar to Colorados Amendment 64 in that it allows state residents ages 21 and older to possess up to an ounce of marijuana for recreational use. The measure passed in 2012 with the support of 55.7 percent of voters in the state. The Washington ballot initiative also put in place substantial tax rates imposed on growers, processors, and retailers. The tax rate on recreational marijuana at each stage is 25 percent, and the revenue goes to state coffers. District of Columbia Washington, D.C., legalized the recreational use of marijuana in February of 2015. The measure was supported by 65 percent of voters in a November 2014 ballot initiative. If youre in the nations capital, youre allowed to carry up to 2 ounces of marijuana and grow as many as six plants in your home. You can also gift a friend up to an ounce of pot.

Monday, October 21, 2019

French Speaking Celebrities

French Speaking Celebrities If your students dont see any point in learning French, maybe J.K. Rowling and Johnny Depp can help. They are among the famous non-native French speakers around the world listed below. If your students know how many cool people speak French, they might realize how great it would be to learn this Romance language- just like some of their favorite movie and television stars, musicians, and novelists. Note that this is a list of people from non-French-speaking countries or regions only. Cà ©line Dion, for example, is not on this list because she is French-Canadian. Directors, Actors, and Television Personalities From the Terminator and a famous television chef to some of the top American acteurs  (actors) and  actrices  (actresses), this group of French-speaking personalities is surprisingly large.   Woody Allen (American director and actor)Cristiane Amanpour (British reporter)Halle Berry (American actress)Orlando Bloom (British actor)Anthony Bourdain (American chef)Lorraine Bracco (American actress)Jennifer Connelly (American actress)Bradley Cooper (American actor)Robert De Niro (American actor)Johnny Depp (American actor)Shannen Doherty (American actress)Jane Fonda (American actress)Jodie Foster (American actress)Morgan Freeman (American actor)Milla Jovovich (Ukrainian-born American model and actress)Hugh Grant (British actor)Maggie Gyllenhaal (American actress)Ethan Hawke (American actor)John Hurt (British actor)William Hurt (American actor)Jeremy Irons (British actor)Angelina Jolie (American actress)Grace Jones (Jamaican-American singer, model, actress)Ashley Judd (American actress)Ted Koppel (English-born American broadcast journalistLisa Kudrow (American actress)Matt Leblanc (American actor)Tommy Lee Jones (American actor)Andie MacDowell (American actress)John Malkovich (Am erican actor) Ewan McGregor (Scottish actor)Danica McKellar (American actress)Helen Mirren (British actress)Gwyneth Paltrow (American actress)Matthew Perry (American actor)Christopher Plummer (Canadian actor)Natalie Portman (Israeli actress)Molly Ringwald (American actress)Arnold Schwarzenegger (Austrian actor, former governor of California)William Shatner (Canadian actor)Ally Sheedy (American actress)Mira Sorvino (American actress)Oliver Stone (American filmmaker)Sharon Stone (American actress)Meryl Streep (American actress)Emma Thompson (British actress)John Travolta (American actor)Alex Trebek (Canadian, game show host)Uma Thurman (American actress)Emma Watson (British actress)Sigourney Weaver (American actress) Musicians A number of the worlds top pop and country singers speak French, even the singer who made Rocket Man famous. Justin Bieber (Canadian singer-songwriter)Phil Collins (British singer)Julio Iglesias (Spanish singer)Mick Jagger (British musician)Elton John  (British musician)Madonna (American singer, actress)Alanis Morisette (Canadian and American singer-songwriter)Sting (British musician)Shania Twain (Canadian singer)Tina Turner (American singer) Authors and Poets A few non-native scribes, including the creator of the Harry Potter series and a Nobel Prize-winning poet, speak the language. Maya Angelou (American author and poet)Angela Davis (American activist and author)John Hume (Irish Nobel Prize winner)J.K. Rowling (British novelist) Models Clearly, a few models have found it advantageous to learn French. Linda Evangelista (Canadian model)Elle MacPherson (Australian model)Claudia Schiffer (German model) Other Notables From two former first ladies, two queens and two popes to a top tennis pro, the French language clearly has its draws. Madeleine Albright (Czech, former U.S. secretary of state)Tony Blair (former British prime minister)Pope Benedict XVIStephen Breyer (American Supreme Court justice)Queen Elizabeth II (of England)Pope John-Paul IIJackie Kennedy Onassis (former American first lady)Michelle Obama (former American first lady)Mitt Romney (American politician)Queen Silvia (of Sweden)Serena Williams (American tennis player)